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The meaning of «'ndrangheta»

The 'Ndrangheta (/(ən)dræŋˈɡɛtə/,[6] Italian: [nˈdraŋɡeta], Calabrian: [(ɳ)ˈɖɽaɲɟɪta])[a] is a prominent Italian Mafia-type[7] organized crime syndicate and criminal society based in the peninsular and mountainous region of Calabria and dating back to the late 18th century. It is considered to be the most powerful and dangerous organized crime group in the world.[8] Since the 1950s, following wide-scale emigration from Calabria, the organization has established itself worldwide. The 'Ndrangheta is the only one of the mafia-type criminal organizations operating in Italy to have maintained the rites that distinguished it in the past, passing them down orally and through codes that, on rare occasions, have been discovered. It is characterized by a horizontal structure made up of autonomous clans known as 'ndrine, based almost exclusively on blood ties. Its main activity is drug trafficking, of which it has a monopoly in Europe, but it also deals with arms trafficking, money laundering, racketeering, extortion, loan sharking, prostitution. The 'Ndrangheta has enjoyed, for decades, a privileged relationship with the main South American drug cartels, which consider it the most reliable European partner. It is capable of heavily influencing local and national politics and infiltrating large sectors of the legal economy. In 2013 they purportedly made €53 billion according to a study from Demoskopika Research Institute.[9]A US diplomat estimated that the organization's narcotics trafficking, extortion and money laundering activities accounted for at least three per cent of Italy's GDP in 2010.[10]

The 'Ndrangheta was already known during the reign of the Bourbons of Naples. In the spring of 1792, there was the first official report in history on the 'Ndrangheta, and a mission as "Royal Visitor" was entrusted to Giuseppe Maria Galanti; these travelled far and wide throughout most of Calabria, often also making use of reports (answers written on the basis of a sort of questionnaire to fixed questions, prepared by himself) of local notables deemed reliable and trusted. This resulted in a bleak picture, as well as on the economic situation in the region, especially on that of public order.[11] This work has been analyzed by various contemporary historians.[12][11][13][14] Luca Addante writes in the introduction to the re-edition of Galanti's report ("Giornale di viaggio in Calabria", Rubbettino Editore, 2008):[13] "the murders, thefts, the kidnappings were infinite; the ignorance of the clergy was scandalous; the village notables, obsessed with the idea of enriching themselves and then ennobling themselves, rapacious monopolizers of local administrations, who grew up in the shadow of a decadent nobility whose remains were being prepared." Galanti, in particular, reports in the Giornale the descriptions of disturbing crime phenomena, noting how the inefficient administration of justice, the corruption and the monopoly of the barons, was starting to produce cases, as in Maida, of "a small bunch of young, freeloaded young men who commit violence with the use of firearms. Justice is idle because without force and without a system malicious people become policemen (a sort of urban guard)." In the District of Gerace, "the raids of the criminals in the countryside are general. Almost all the militiamen are the most troublemakers in the province because the criminals and the debtors adopt this profession and are guaranteed by commanders in contempt of the laws. With this, the crimes, which grow every day".[15]

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