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Ayutthaya Kingdom

The meaning of «ayutthaya kingdom»

Phitsanulok1463-1488 Ayutthaya1488-1666 Lopburi1666-1688

The Ayutthaya Kingdom (/ɑːˈjuːtəjə/; Thai: อยุธยา, RTGS: Ayutthaya, pronounced [ʔā.jút.tʰā.jāː] (listen); also spelled "Ayudhya" or "Ayodhya") was a Siamese kingdom that existed from 1350 to 1767 centered on the city of Ayutthaya. The Kingdom of Ayutthaya is considered to be the precursor of modern Thailand and its developments become the main part of History of Thailand.

Ayutthaya kingdom emerged from the mandala of city-states on the Lower Chao Phraya Valley in late fourteenth century during the decline of the Khmer Empire. After a century of territorial expansions, Ayutthaya was centralized and rose as a major power in Southeast Asia. Ayutthaya faced Burmese invasions resulting in the First Fall of Ayutthaya in 1569. However, King Naresuan (r. 1590 - 1605) freed Ayutthaya from brief Burmese rule and expanded Ayutthaya militarily. By 1600, the kingdom's vassals included some city-states in the Malay Peninsula, Sukhothai, Lan Na and parts of Burma and Cambodia,[1] though the extent of Ayutthaya's control over its neighbors varied over time. In the seventeenth century, Ayutthaya emerged as en entrepôt of international trade and its cultures flourished. The reign of King Narai (r. 1656 - 1688) was described as "Golden Age" of Siamese culture and was known for historic contact between the Siamese court and the court of King Louis XIV of France. In the eighteenth century, however, Ayutthaya succumbed to civil wars and renewed Burmese invasions. Ayutthaya Kingdom ended in 1767 with Burmese invasion and the city of Ayutthaya, after 417 years of existence, was destroyed. The seat of Siamese authority was moved to Thonburi and later Bangkok.

In foreign accounts, Ayutthaya was called "Siam", but many[which?] sources say the people of Ayutthaya called themselves Tai, and their kingdom Krung Tai (Thai: กรุงไท) meaning 'Tai country' (กรุงไท). It was also referred to as Iudea in a painting requested by the Dutch East India Company.[note 1]

The origin of Ayutthaya had been subjected to scholarly debates. Traditional accounts hold that King Uthong, the ruler of a city called "Uthong", moved his court due to the threat of an epidemic.[2] The city of "Uthong" was not the modern U Thong District, Suphan Buri Province, which was a major Dvaravati site but had already been abandoned before the foundation of Ayutthaya. Van Vliet's chronicles, a seventeenth-century work, stated that King Uthong was a Chinese merchant who established himself at Phetchaburi before moving to Ayutthaya. Tamnan Mulla Satsana, a sixteenth-century Lanna literature, stated that King Uthong was from Lavo Kingdom. Regardless of his origin, King Uthong, who had been a post-Angkorian ruler of one of the cities in Lower Chao Phraya Valley, moved his court to an island on intersection of three rivers; Chao Phraya River, Lopburi River and Pa Sak River, and founded Ayutthaya there in 1350, naming it after Ayodhya, one of the holiest Hindu cities of India of the same name.

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