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The meaning of «citalopram»

Citalopram, sold under the brand name Celexa among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class.[5][6] It is used to treat major depressive disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, panic disorder, and social phobia.[5] The antidepressant effects may take one to four weeks to occur.[5] It is taken by mouth.[5][6]

Common side effects include nausea, trouble sleeping, sexual problems, shakiness, feeling tired, and sweating.[5] Serious side effects include an increased risk of suicide in those under the age of 25, serotonin syndrome, glaucoma, and QT prolongation.[5] It should not be used in persons who take or have recently taken a MAO inhibitor.[5] Antidepressant discontinuation syndrome may occur when stopped.[5] There are concerns that use during pregnancy may harm the fetus.[3]

Citalopram was approved for medical use in the United States in 1998.[5] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines.[7] It is available as a generic medication.[8] In 2019, it was the 30th most commonly prescribed medication in the United States, with more than 29 million prescriptions.[9][10]

In the United States, citalopram is approved to treat major depressive disorder.[11] Citalopram appears to have comparable efficacy and superior tolerability relative to other antidepressants.[12][13] In the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence ranking of ten antidepressants for efficacy and cost-effectiveness, citalopram is fifth in effectiveness (after mirtazapine, escitalopram, venlafaxine, and sertraline) and fourth in cost-effectiveness.[14] The ranking results were based on a 2009 meta-analysis by Andrea Cipriani; an update of the analysis in 2018 produced broadly similar results.[15][12]

Evidence for effectiveness of citalopram for treating depression in children is uncertain.[16][17]

Citalopram is licensed in the UK[18] and other European countries[19] for panic disorder, with or without agoraphobia.

Citalopram may be used off-label to treat anxiety, and dysthymia,[20] premenstrual dysphoric disorder, body dysmorphic disorder, and obsessive–compulsive disorder.[21]

It appears to be as effective as fluvoxamine and paroxetine in obsessive–compulsive disorder.[22] Some data suggest the effectiveness of intravenous infusion of citalopram in resistant OCD.[23] Citalopram is well tolerated and as effective as moclobemide in social anxiety disorder.[24] There are studies suggesting that citalopram can be useful in reducing aggressive and impulsive behavior.[25][26] It appears to be superior to placebo for behavioural disturbances associated with dementia.[27] It has also been used successfully for hypersexuality in early Alzheimer's disease.[28]

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