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Eikenella corrodens

The meaning of «eikenella corrodens»

Eikenella corrodens is a Gram-negative facultative anaerobic bacillus that can cause severe invasive disease in humans.[1] It was first identified by M. Eiken in 1958, who called it Bacteroides corrodens.[2] E. corrodens is a rare pericarditis associated pathogen.[3] It is a fastidious, slow growing, human commensal bacillus, capable of acting as an opportunistic pathogen and causing abscesses in several anatomical sites, including the liver, lung, spleen, and submandibular region.[4] E. corrodens could independently cause serious infection in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts.[5]

Eikenella corrodens is a pleomorphic bacillus that sometimes appears coccobacillary and typically creates a depression (or "pit") in the agar on which it is growing. Only half produce the pitting of the agar considered characteristic.[citation needed]. It is slow-growing, facultative, anaerobic and a gram-negative bacillus.[6]

It grows in aerobic and anaerobic conditions, but requires an atmosphere enhanced by 3–10% carbon dioxide.[citation needed]

The colonies are small and greyish, they produce a greenish discoloration of the underlying agar, and smell faintly of bleach (hypochlorite).[citation needed]

They are oxidase-positive, catalase-negative, urease-negative, and indole-negative, and reduce nitrate to nitrite.[citation needed]

In 2006, Azakami et al reported that the periodontal pathogen E. corrodens have ortholog of luxS, the gene required for quorum sensing (QS) signal molecule AI-2 synthesis and E. corrodens can produce AI-2 signal for cell-to-cell communication and AI-2 has a role on biofilm formation by E. corrodens.[7] Karim et al reported that this bacterium can produce AI-2 inactivation enzyme during its stationary phase.[8] Karim et al also reported that LuxS-mediated QS may facilitate the maturation and detachment of biofilm formation in E.corrodens, which can leads to progression of periodontal disease.[9]

Eikenella corrodens is a commensal of the human mouth and upper respiratory tract. It is an unusual cause of infection and when it is cultured, it is most usually found mixed with other organisms. Infections most commonly occur in patients with cancers of the head and neck,[10] but can occur in human bite infections, especially "reverse bite", "fight bite", or "clenched fist injuries".[11] It can also cause infections in insulin-dependent diabetics and intravenous drug users who lick their needles ("needle-licker's osteomyelitis").[12] It is one of the HACEK group of infections which are a cause of culture-negative endocarditis. In general, the HACEK organisms are responsible for approximately 3% of all cases of infective endocarditis (IE). IE due to E. corrodens is usually a result of poor oral hygiene and or periodontal infection. Manipulation of the gingival or oral mucosa for dental procedures also can predispose patients to infection since E. corrodens is a constituent of the human oral flora.[13] E. corrodens can coexists and is frequently detected with other pathogens including Staphylococcus and Streptococcus.[14]

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