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France

The meaning of «france»

Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}47°N 2°E / 47°N 2°E / 47; 2

– in Europe (green & dark grey)– in the European Union (green)

France (French: [fʁɑ̃s] ), officially the French Republic (French: République française),[1] is a transcontinental country spanning Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] Its metropolitan area extends from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea; overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans. France borders Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland, Monaco and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south, as well as the Netherlands, Suriname and Brazil in the Americas. Its eighteen integral regions (five of which are overseas) span a combined area of 643,801 km2 (248,573 sq mi) and over 67 million people (as of May 2021[update]).[12] France is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice. Including its overseas territories, France has twelve time zones, the most of any country.

Inhabited since the Palaeolithic era, France was settled by Celtic tribes known as Gauls during the Iron Age. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, leading to a distinct Gallo-Roman culture that laid the foundation of the French language. The Germanic Franks arrived in 476 and formed the Kingdom of Francia, which became the heartland of the Carolingian Empire. The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned the empire, with West Francia becoming the Kingdom of France in 987. In the High Middle Ages, France was a highly decentralized feudal kingdom, but among the most powerful states in Europe. A distinct French identity began to emerge in the 14th and 15th centuries during the Hundred Years' War. The French Renaissance saw a flowering of art and culture, disputes with rivals Spain and the Holy Roman Empire, and the establishment of global colonial empire, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world.[13] Severely weakened by the Thirty Years' War and religious civil wars of the 17th century, under Louis XIV France reemerged as the dominant cultural, political, and military power by the early 18th century.[14] The costly Seven Years' War and involvement in the American Revolution precipitated the French Revolution of 1789, which overthrew the absolute monarchy, replaced the Ancien Régime with one of the first modern republics, and saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day.

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