Home »

Geographical distribution of russian speakers

The meaning of «geographical distribution of russian speakers»

This article details the geographical distribution of Russian-speakers. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, the status of the Russian language often became a matter of controversy. Some Post-Soviet states adopted policies of de-Russification aimed at reversing former trends at Russification.

After the collapse of the Russian Empire in 1917, de-Russification occurred in the newly-independent Finland, Poland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and the Kars Oblast, the last of which became part of Turkey.

The new Soviet Union initially implemented a policy of Korenizatsiya, which was aimed partly at the reversal of the tsarist Russification of the non-Russian areas of the country.[1] Korenizatsiya (meaning "nativization" or "indigenization", literally "root-ification") was the early Soviet nationalities policy that was promoted mostly in the 1920s but with a continuing legacy in the later years. The primary policy consisted of promoting representatives of titular nations of Soviet republics and national minorities on lower levels of the administrative subdivision of the state, into local government, management, bureaucracy and nomenklatura in the corresponding national entities.

Joseph Stalin mostly reversed the implementation of Korenizatsiya in the 1930s not so much by changing the letter of the law but by reducing its practical effects and by introducing de facto Russification. The Soviet system heavily promoted Russian as the "language of interethnic communication".

Eventually, in 1990, Russian became legally the official all-Union language of the Soviet Union, with constituent republics having the right to declare their own official languages.[2][3]

After the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, about 25 million Russians (about a sixth of the former Soviet Russians) found themselves outside Russia and were about 10% of the population of the post-Soviet states other than Russia. Millions of them later became refugees from various interethnic conflicts.[4]

Including ethnic Russians and other ethnicities in Ukraine that use Russian language as first language in public.

In Armenia, Russian has no official status but is recognized as a minority language under the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities.[27] According to estimates from Demoskop Weekly, in 2004 there were 15,000 native speakers of Russian in the country, and 1 million active speakers.[28] 30% of the population was fluent in Russian in 2006, and 2% used it as the main language with family or friends or at work.[29] Russian is spoken by 1.4% of the population according to a 2009 estimate from the World Factbook.[30]

In 2010 in a significant pullback to de-Russification, Armenia voted to re-introduce Russian-medium schools.[31]

In Azerbaijan, Russian has no official status but is a lingua franca of the country.[27] According to estimates from Demoskop Weekly, in 2004 there were 250,000 native speakers of Russian in the country, and 2 million active speakers.[28] 26% of the population was fluent in Russian in 2006, and 5% used it as the main language with family or friends or at work.[29]

contact us full version