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Hafezzi huzur

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Muhammadullah (1895 - May 6, 1987), commonly known as Hafezzī Huzūr (Bengali: হাফেজ্জী হুজুর), was a Bangladeshi politician, Islamic leader and founder of the Bangladesh Khilafat Andolan.[1][2] He was the first religious figure to stand up for the highest state office in Bangladesh.[3]

Muhammadullah was born in the year 1895, in the village of Ludhua in the Raipur Thana of Lakshmipur in the Bengal Presidency of British India. His father was Munshi Idris, the son of Akramuddin Mianji. Muhammadullah studied at Fatehpur Primary School before proceeding to Chandraganj Madrasa where he studied for a year. He then studied for a year at Nawab Faizunnesa's madrasa in Laksam, andthen enrolling at the Khilbais Madrasa in Lakshmipur. In Panipat, first under Qari Abdus Salam in 1913 and then under Qari Akhlaq Husayn in 1915, he completed his hifz. He then moved on to study at Mazahir Uloom in Saharanpur from 1915 to 1922, where he completed Kutub al-Sittah. He gained a high-class certificate from Darul Uloom Deoband in 1923.[4]

After completing his studies across North India, he returned to his Bengali motherland. Cooperating with the likes of Shamsul Haque Faridpuri and Pirji Huzur, he set up madrasas across Eastern Bengal such as Ashraful Uloom Bara Katara, Jamia Arabia Imdadul Uloom Faridabad and Jamia Qurania Arabia Lalbagh. In 1965, he established the Jamiah Nooria Madrasa in Kamrangirchar, Dhaka.

His entrance to politics started with the founding of the Nizam-e-Islam Party in 1952. In 1978, the President of Bangladesh Ziaur Rahman removed the ban on religion-based political parties in the country. In response, Hafezzi Huzur sent the President an open letter, requesting him to base the country upon Islamic ideals.[5] Following the assassination of Ziaur Rahman, Hafezzi Huzur stood up as an independent presidential candidate in the 1981 elections. He finished third, gaining 1.79% of the total votes.[2]

Hafezzi Huzur founded his own political party known as Bangladesh Khilafat Andolan in November 1981.[6] His political career included travelling and meeting dignitaries in Saudi Arabia, Iran and Iraq.[7]

In response to military rule, Hafezzi Huzur formed a committee, the Sammilita Sangram Parishad (Combined Action Committee), consisting of 11 Islamic parties.[8] He stood up for the 1986 elections, in which he finished second with 5.69% of total votes.[9]

Muhammadullah was the father of 4 sons and 6 daughters. One of his daughters was married to Fazlul Haque Amini. His sons, including Shah Ahmadullah Ashraf, Ataullah and Hamidullah, are active members of their father's political party, with the former succeeding Muhammadullah as amir (leader) following his death.

Hafezzi Huzur expressed opposition to the 1982 coup d'état, labelling Hussain Muhammad Ershad's military rule as un-Islamic. In his Shotorkobaṇī (words of warning) booklet, he referred to the Bangladesh Jamaat-e-Islami as a Mawdudi fitnah that spreads misguidance.[7]

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