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Lysergic acid diethylamide

The meaning of «lysergic acid diethylamide»

Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD),[a] also known colloquially as acid, is a psychedelic drug.[11] Effects typically include intensified thoughts, emotions, and sensory perception.[12] At sufficiently high dosages LSD manifests primarily visual, as well as auditory, hallucinations.[13][14] Dilated pupils, increased blood pressure, and increased body temperature are typical.[15] Since LSD binds to dopamine receptors in addition to serotonin receptors its effects are also more energetic and fast paced compared to psychedelics such as psilocybin, which is not a dopamine agonist.[16] Effects typically begin within half an hour and can last for up to 20 hours.[15][17] LSD is also capable of occasioning mystical experiences and ego disillusion, albeit less frequently than compounds such as psilocybin.[18][14] It is used mainly as a recreational drug or for spiritual reasons.[15][19] LSD is both the prototypical psychedelic and one of the 'classical' psychedelics, being the psychedelics with the greatest scientific and cultural significance.[11]

LSD is considered to be non-addictive with low potential for abuse.[20][21] There are no recorded successful attempts to train animals to self-administer LSD in laboratory settings.[21] Frequent use rapidly builds tolerance, requiring exponentially larger doses to feel an effect. Adverse psychological reactions are possible, such as anxiety, paranoia, and delusions.[7] It is possible for LSD to induce either intermittent or chronic visual hallucinations, in spite of no further use, in some individuals, typically in the absence of the psychological effects associated with LSD. Common effects include visual snow and palinopsia. In cases where this causes distress or impairment it is diagnosed as hallucinogen persisting perception disorder (HPPD).[22][23] While overdose from LSD is unknown, despite there being various case studies of individuals taking extremely high dosages,[11] LSD can cause injury and death as a result of accidents stemming from psychological impairment.[15][11] The effects of LSD are thought to stem primarily from it being an agonist at the 5-HT2A receptor.[21][7][11] While the exact nature of how LSD exerts its effects via this receptor is still unknown, reduced default mode network activity causing a corresponding increase in global functional connectivity,[24][25][26] as well as increased glutamatergic transmission,[11] are likely primary underlying mechanisms. LSD is exceptionally potent, with as little as 20 μg capable of producing a noticeable effect.[15] In pure form, LSD is clear or white in color, has no smell, and is crystalline.[12] It breaks down with exposure to ultraviolet light.[15]

As of 2017[update], about 10% of people in the United States have used LSD at some point in their lives, while 0.7% have used it in the last year.[27] It was most popular in the 1960s to 1980s.[15] The use of LSD among US adults increased 56.4% from 2015 to 2018.[28] LSD is typically either swallowed or held under the tongue.[12] It is most often sold on blotter paper and less commonly as tablets or in gelatin squares.[15]

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