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National radical camp

The meaning of «national radical camp»

The National Radical Camp (Polish: Obóz Narodowo-Radykalny, ONR) refers to at least three groups that are far-right and ultranationalist Polish organisations with doctrines stemming from pre-World War II nationalist mindset.

The current incarnation revived in 1993 is a far-right movement in Poland much like its historical predecessors.[1] It has often been described as fascist and sometimes as neo-Nazi.[2][3] As of 2012 it is registered as a common-interest association.[4]

The ONR considers itself an ideological descendant of the 1930s-era National Radical Camp, an ultranationalist, patriotic and antisemitic political movement which existed in the pre-World War II Second Polish Republic,[5] an illegal Polish anti-communist,[6] and nationalist political party formed on 14 April 1934 mostly by the youth radicals who left the National Party of the National Democracy movement.[6]

The Falanga National Radical Camp (Polish: Ruch Narodowo Radykalny-Falanga), RNR-Falanga or ONR-Falanga colloquially, was a minor Polish third position political grouping of the 1930s, as was National Radical Camp ABC (Polish: Obóz Narodowo-Radykalny ABC) or ONR-ABC for short following the split of the original party in 1934. "Falanga" is Polish for "phalanx", "ABC" refers to a newspaper printed by the organisation at the time.

The party was influenced by the ideas of Italian Fascism.[7][unreliable source?] It rejected parliamentary democracy and called for the construction of a "national state," based on the principles of hierarchy, one-person leadership, and elimination of national minorities from public life.[8]

Dominated by youth, National Radical Camp was an outgrowth of the National-Democratic Party, an ultra-nationalist movement that had arisen in the 1920s.[9] The emergence of the National Radical Camp was part of broader movement of the Polish right toward radicalization in the 1930s.[10] Virulently antisemitic and eliminationist, ONR's members were responsible for an increase in anti-semitic violence after 1935.[10]

The party was created on the insistence of former members of the Camp of Great Poland (Obóz Wielkiej Polski),[6] most notably Jan Mosdorf, Tadeusz Gluziński and Henryk Rossman.[6] It supported "class solidarity," nationalization of foreign and Jewish-owned companies and introduction of anti-semitic laws.[6]

The ONR was popular mostly among the students and other groups of urban youth. ONR openly encouraged anti-Jewish pogroms, and became the main force in the organization of attacks against Jews.[11] It organized fighting squads, attacked Jews and leftist politicians, destroyed Jewish property, and provoked clashes with the police.[8] Because of its involvement in boycott of Jewish-owned stores,[12] as well as numerous attacks on left-wing worker demonstrations,[13] the ONR was outlawed after three months of existence, in July 1934.[6] Several leaders were interned in the Bereza Kartuska Detention Camp, where the organization split into two separate factions: the ONR-Falanga (Ruch Narodowo-Radykalny) led by Bolesław Piasecki, and the ONR-ABC (Obóz Narodowo-Radykalny) formed around the ABC journal and led by Henryk Rossman.[6] Both organizations were officially illegal.[6]

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