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Obesity

The meaning of «obesity»

Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to an extent that it may have a negative effect on health.[1] People are generally considered obese when their body mass index (BMI), a measurement obtained by dividing a person's weight by the square of the person's height, is over 30 kg/m2; the range 25–30 kg/m2 is defined as overweight.[1] Some East Asian countries use lower values.[8] Obesity increases the likelihood of various diseases and conditions, particularly cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, osteoarthritis, and depression.[2][3]

Obesity is most commonly caused by a combination of excessive food intake, lack of physical activity, and genetic susceptibility.[1][4] A few cases are caused primarily by genes, endocrine disorders, medications, or mental disorder.[9] The view that obese people eat little yet gain weight due to a slow metabolism is not medically supported.[10] On average, obese people have a greater energy expenditure than their normal counterparts due to the energy required to maintain an increased body mass.[10][11]

Obesity is mostly preventable through a combination of social changes and personal choices.[1] Changes to diet and exercising are the main treatments.[2] Diet quality can be improved by reducing the consumption of energy-dense foods, such as those high in fat or sugars, and by increasing the intake of dietary fiber.[1] Medications can be used, along with a suitable diet, to reduce appetite or decrease fat absorption.[5] If diet, exercise, and medication are not effective, a gastric balloon or surgery may be performed to reduce stomach volume or length of the intestines, leading to feeling full earlier or a reduced ability to absorb nutrients from food.[6][12]

Obesity is a leading preventable cause of death worldwide, with increasing rates in adults and children.[1][13] In 2015, 600 million adults (12%) and 100 million children were obese in 195 countries.[7] Obesity is more common in women than men.[1] Authorities view it as one of the most serious public health problems of the 21st century.[14] Obesity is stigmatized in much of the modern world (particularly in the Western world), though it was seen as a symbol of wealth and fertility at other times in history and still is in some parts of the world.[2][15] In 2013, several medical societies, including the American Medical Association and the American Heart Association, classified obesity as a disease.[16][17][18]

Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have an adverse effect on health.[20] It is defined by body mass index (BMI) and further evaluated in terms of fat distribution via the waist–hip ratio and total cardiovascular risk factors.[21][22] BMI is closely related to both percentage body fat and total body fat.[23] In children, a healthy weight varies with age and sex. Obesity in children and adolescents is defined not as an absolute number but in relation to a historical normal group, such that obesity is a BMI greater than the 95th percentile.[24] The reference data on which these percentiles were based date from 1963 to 1994, and thus have not been affected by the recent increases in weight.[25] BMI is defined as the subject's weight divided by the square of their height and is calculated as follows.

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