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Obesity-associated morbidity

The meaning of «obesity-associated morbidity»

Obesity is an important risk factor for many chronic physical and mental illnesses. The generally accepted view is that being overweight causes similar health problems to obesity, but to a lesser degree.[1]

Obesity is associated with cardiovascular diseases including angina and myocardial infarction.[2][3] A 2002 report concluded that 21% of ischemic heart disease is due to obesity[1] while a 2008 European consensus puts the number at 35%.[4]

Having obesity is associated to about 11% of heart failure cases in men and 14% in women.[5]

More than 85% of those with hypertension have a BMI greater than 25.[5] The risk of hypertension is 5 times higher in the obese as compared to those of normal weight. A definitive link between obesity and hypertension has been found using animal and clinical studies, which have suggested that there are multiple potential mechanisms for obesity-induced hypertension. These mechanisms include the activation of the sympathetic nervous system as well as the activation of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system.[6] The association between hypertension and obesity has been also well described in children.[7]

Obesity is associated with increased LDL cholesterol (bad cholesterol) and lowered HDL cholesterol (good cholesterol).[5][8]

Obesity increases one's risk of venous thromboembolism by 2.3 fold.[9][10]

Obesity is associated with the incidence of stretch marks, acanthosis nigricans, lymphedema, cellulitis, hirsutism, and intertrigo.[11][12]

One of the strongest links between obesity and disease is that with type 2 diabetes. These two conditions are so strongly linked that researchers in the 1970s started calling it "diabesity".[5] Excess weight is behind 64% of cases of diabetes in men and 77% of cases in women.[13]

Obesity, according to a 2009 review, can be associated with elevated peripheral conversion of androgens into estrogens in some individuals.[14]

Several studies have shown that the frequency and severity of GERD symptoms are higher in those who are obese.[15][16]

According to NIH, obesity causes the amount of cholesterol in bile to rise, in turn the formation of stone can occur [5][17]

Due to its association with insulin resistance, the risk of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) increases with adiposity. In the US approximately 60% of patients with PCOS have a BMI greater than 30. It remains uncertain whether PCOS contributes to obesity, or the reverse.[18]

Obesity leads to infertility in both men and women. This is primarily due to excess estrogen interfering with normal ovulation in women[5] and altering spermatogenesis in men.[19] It is believed to cause 6% of primary infertility.[5][20] A review in 2013 came to the result that obesity increases the risk of oligospermia and azoospermia in men, with an of odds ratio 1.3.[21] Being morbidly obese increases the odds ratio to 2.0.[21]

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