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Omar al-bashir

The meaning of «omar al-bashir»

Field Marshal Omar Hassan Ahmad al-Bashir (Arabic: عمر حسن أحمد البشير‎, pronounced [ba'ʃiːr];[1] born 1 January 1944) is a Sudanese former military officer, politician, and war criminal who served as the seventh head of state of Sudan under various titles from 1989 to 2019, when he was deposed in a coup d'état.[2] He was subsequently incarcerated, tried and convicted on multiple corruption charges.[3][4] He came to power in 1989 when, as a brigadier general in the Sudanese Army, he led a group of officers in a military coup that ousted the democratically elected government of prime minister Sadiq al-Mahdi after it began negotiations with rebels in the south.[5] He was elected three times as President in elections that have been under scrutiny for electoral fraud.[6] In 1992, al-Bashir founded the National Congress Party, which remained the dominant political party in the country until 2019.[7] In March 2009, al-Bashir became the first sitting head of state to be indicted by the International Criminal Court (ICC), for allegedly directing a campaign of mass killing, rape, and pillage against civilians in Darfur.[8] On 11 February 2020, the Sudanese government announced that it had agreed to hand over al-Bashir to the ICC for trial.[9]

In October 2005, al-Bashir's government negotiated an end to the Second Sudanese Civil War,[10] leading to a referendum in the South, resulting in the separation of the south as the country of South Sudan. In the Darfur region, he oversaw the war in Darfur that resulted in death tolls that are about 10,000 according to the Sudanese Government,[11] but most sources suggest between 200,000[12] and 400,000.[13][14][15] During his presidency, there have been several violent struggles between the Janjaweed militia and rebel groups such as the Sudanese Liberation Army (SLA) and the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) in the form of guerrilla warfare in the Darfur region. The civil war displaced[16] over 2.5 million people out of a total population of 6.2 million in Darfur[17] and created a crisis in the diplomatic relations between Sudan and Chad.[18] The rebels in Darfur lost the support from Libya after the death of Muammar Gaddafi and the collapse of his regime in 2011.[19][20][21]

In July 2008, the prosecutor of the International Criminal Court (ICC), Luis Moreno Ocampo, accused al-Bashir of genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes in Darfur.[22] The court issued an arrest warrant for al-Bashir on 4 March 2009 on counts of war crimes and crimes against humanity, but ruled that there was insufficient evidence to prosecute him for genocide.[23][24] However, on 12 July 2010, the Court issued a second warrant containing three separate counts of genocide. The new warrant, like the first, was delivered to the Sudanese government, which did not recognize either the warrant or the ICC.[24] The indictments do not allege that Bashir personally took part in such activities; instead, they say that he is "suspected of being criminally responsible, as an indirect co-perpetrator".[25] The court's decision was opposed by the African Union, Arab League and Non-Aligned Movement as well as the governments of Russia, China, Jordan, Turkey and the Netherlands.[26][27]

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