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Russian empire involvement in the persian constitutional revolution

The meaning of «russian empire involvement in the persian constitutional revolution»

Constitutionalists Supported by: Ottoman Empire[1]

Illarion Vorontsov-Dashkov Nikolai Yudenich Vladimir Liakhov

Russian Empire involvement in the Persian Constitutional Revolution (Russian: Российской империи интервенция в персидской конституционной революции; Persian: مداخله امپراتوری روسیه در انقلاب مشروطه ایران‎) was to support the authoritarian faction led by Mohammad Ali Shah to defeat the constitutionalists. Until April 20, 1909, when the Russian army under Major General I. Snarsky occupied Tabriz to protect the Russian consuls, the Russian Empire indirectly supported Mohammad Ali Shah and the authoritarian faction. Support from the Russian Empire included sending weapons, lending money to Colonel Liakhov, the commander of the Cossack Brigade, and a large-scale propaganda machine against the constitutionalist leaders.

During the one-year siege of Tabriz, Russia had repeatedly expressed concern about the security of its consoles. In correspondence between Foreign Minister Alexander Izvolsky and Prime Minister Hossein-Qoli Nezam al-Saltaneh Mafi, the issue of the Russian military invasion of Tabriz and its conquest was repeatedly raised.[2] After that, for two years, the Russian army tried to occupy areas around the Caspian Sea. The Russians conquered the cities of Astara and Bandar Anzali, and even after Muhammad Ali Shah was deposed, Russian commanders tried to restore his monarchy in a failed campaign.[3] However, Russian influence remained in the Qajar court and bureaucracy, threatening the Ottoman Empire, which led to the Persian campaign in World War I.[4]

During the period 1905-1911, the Constitutional Revolution took place in Persia. As a result of the protest of the aristocracy, clergy and intellectuals, Mozafereddin Shah was forced to adopt a constitution in October 1906 and create a Majlis. In 1907, Anglo-Russian Convention was concluded on the division of Iran into spheres of influence, according to which Iran was divided into three parts: Northern Iran (Russian), Central (neutral and open to Germany), Southern (England). The Constitutional Revolution was a major problem for the Convention, so the British and Russian governments agreed to form an authoritarian state and overthrow the constitutionalists.[5]

In January 1907, after the death of his father, Mohammad Ali Shah came to the throne. On accession to the throne, he promised to abide by the constitution given by his father in 1906, which, however, he did not. On June 24, 1908, Muhammad Ali made a coup, with the help of the Persian Cossack brigade, dispersed the Mejlis.[6] Meanwhile, the Russian Empire's first indirect cooperation with Mohammad Ali Shah sent letters to Colonel Liakhov, commander of the Cossack Brigade, to the Russian Embassy in Tehran for a loan and to the Commander-in-Chief of the Caucasus to request troops.[7] In February 1909, the Shahsevan nomads began to plunder in the vicinity of the city of Ardabil, residents of villages who were Russian subjects.[8] The Russian embassy in Iran accused the move and called on the Iranian government to investigate. At the same time, General Yudenich crossed the Iranian-Russian border arbitrarily and occupied Ardabil. He said this was to protect the Russian people and suppress tribal insurgents.[9] This was Russia's first serious move in the Constitutional Revolution.[10]

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