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The meaning of «ibm»

International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology corporation headquartered in Armonk, New York, with operations in over 171 countries. The company began in 1911, founded in Endicott, New York by trust businessman Charles Ranlett Flint, as the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (CTR) and was renamed "International Business Machines" in 1924. IBM is incorporated in New York.[4]

IBM produces and sells computer hardware, middleware and software, and provides hosting and consulting services in areas ranging from mainframe computers to nanotechnology. IBM is also a major research organization, holding the record for most annual U.S. patents generated by a business (as of 2020[update]) for 28 consecutive years.[5]

Inventions by IBM include the automated teller machine (ATM), the floppy disk, the hard disk drive, the magnetic stripe card, the relational database, the SQL programming language, the UPC barcode, and dynamic random-access memory (DRAM). The IBM mainframe, exemplified by the System/360, was the dominant computing platform during the 1960s and 1970s.

IBM is one of 30 companies included in the Dow Jones Industrial Average and one of the world's largest employers, with over 345,000 employees as of 2020[update]. At least 70% of IBM employees are based outside the United States, and the country with the largest number of IBM employees is India.[6]

IBM was founded in 1911 in Endicott, New York, as the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (CTR) and was renamed "International Business Machines" in 1924. IBM is incorporated in New York and has operations in over 170 countries.[4]

In the 1880s, technologies emerged that would ultimately form the core of International Business Machines (IBM). Julius E. Pitrap patented the computing scale in 1885;[7] Alexander Dey invented the dial recorder (1888);[8] Herman Hollerith (1860–1929) patented the Electric Tabulating Machine;[9] and Willard Bundy invented a time clock to record a worker's arrival and departure time on a paper tape in 1889.[10] On June 16, 1911, their four companies were amalgamated in New York State by Charles Ranlett Flint forming a fifth company, the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (CTR) based in Endicott, New York.[1][11] The five companies had 1,300 employees and offices and plants in Endicott and Binghamton, New York; Dayton, Ohio; Detroit, Michigan; Washington, D.C.; and Toronto.[citation needed]

They manufactured machinery for sale and lease, ranging from commercial scales and industrial time recorders, meat and cheese slicers, to tabulators and punched cards. Thomas J. Watson, Sr., fired from the National Cash Register Company by John Henry Patterson, called on Flint and, in 1914, was offered a position at CTR.[12] Watson joined CTR as general manager then, 11 months later, was made President when court cases relating to his time at NCR were resolved.[13] Having learned Patterson's pioneering business practices, Watson proceeded to put the stamp of NCR onto CTR's companies.[14] He implemented sales conventions, "generous sales incentives, a focus on customer service, an insistence on well-groomed, dark-suited salesmen and had an evangelical fervor for instilling company pride and loyalty in every worker".[15][16] His favorite slogan, "THINK", became a mantra for each company's employees.[15] During Watson's first four years, revenues reached $9 million ($134 million today) and the company's operations expanded to Europe, South America, Asia and Australia.[15] Watson never liked the clumsy hyphenated name "Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company" and on February 14, 1924, chose to replace it with the more expansive title "International Business Machines" which had previously been used as the name of CTR's Canadian Division.[17] By 1933, most of the subsidiaries had been merged into one company, IBM.[18]

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